Saturday, June 27, 2020

Explain Briefly the Development of Linguistics - 2750 Words

Explain Briefly the Development of Linguistics (Essay Sample) Content: The Development of Linguistics in the 20th CentuaryThe study of language can be approached from different angles. It can be studied as a human behavior or as a social phenomenon. However, basic definitions of language exist. It is generally accepted that language is a communication pathway. That is, it enables humans to pass a specific message. Some language scholars also look at language as a collection of sentences and utterances that can be used in combination to carry certain meaning (Dunlea, 2006). Therefore, the definition of linguistics can be summarized as the systematic scientific study of language. The study of language has come a long way. The study of language can be traced back to many centuries (Kebbe, 2010). However, the detailed study of language began in the twentieth century. Before this, all attempts at studying language were isolated and restricted to some regions. For example, ancient materials on the study of the Arabic language have been found. These were early forms of linguistics. They mainly focused on certain aspects of linguistics (Dunlea, 2006). Nonetheless, the material made a big contribution to the field of linguistics. Before the twentieth century, the study of language was known as philology (Kebbe, 2010). Philologists studied language from an external perspective. Many scholars were either interested in characterizing language as a social phenomenon or as a human behavior. Those who saw language as a social phenomenon equated it to other social phenomena. For instance, they believed that language was subject to changes brought about by changes in the social environment. Philologists also paid attention to language structure. Philology paved the way for modern linguistics. During this period, linguistics was not studied as a unified subject. Sub-specialties like semantics were studied separately. It is in the twentieth century that all the various parts of linguistics were integrated together. The integration en abled a more detailed study of language. The history of linguistics in the twentieth century has been divided into various periods depending on the predominant views at the time (Kebbe, 2010). Each period is represented by a hypothesis. The classification emerged in the nineteen fifties. This system has greatly helped the development of linguistics. Various schools of thought emerged after the classification system became widely accepted. It is noteworthy to state that the hypotheses are in a continuum. Each era leads us to the next. The hypotheses include the genetic hypothesis (1786), the regularity hypothesis (1876), the quantizing hypothesis (1916), and the exact accountability hypothesis (1957) (Hockett, 1958). This paper will examine each of the hypotheses in detail.The genetic hypothesis (1786)There are many languages in the world. It is believed that the languages are more than 5 thousand. The languages can be grouped into families of closely related languages. This is base d on the observation that languages undergo both semantic and phonetic changes over time (Kebbe, 2010). The genetic hypothesis is of the view that many modern languages that appear different can be traced back to a common ancient language (Hockett, 1958). It is not known when the ancient languages diverged into several new languages. Languages that have a similar ancestor are called cognates. This period is concerned with grouping of languages based on their origin. Most scholars of this period were mainly interested in the European languages. It made sense for most scholars to trace the origin of the European languages since materials written in the old languages were available. This interest continued throughout the twentieth century and in the twenty first century. It is noteworthy to state that this breakthrough was significant because it led to the development of more recent ideologies. The genetic hypothesis has its origin in the study of Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. As earl y as 1767, the similarity between Latin and Sanskrit had been pointed out. However, there was no in-depth comparison (Kebbe, 2010). Franz Bopp also identified the similarities. However, interest in comparative linguistics arose in 1786, after Sir William Jones declared that the languages of Europe and Sanskrit were genetically related. An in depth comparative study of Sanskrit and the European languages then followed. Comparative linguistics led to the view that these languages shared a common origin. The scholars began by grouping languages into families or cognates. For instance, the semantic and phonetic similarities between English and German led them to believe that the two languages are cognates. The common language of origin was named Proto-Germanic language. Further examination of other languages yielded another family. The family comprised of languages derived from Latin like Spanish, Italian, and French. Comparison of Latin and Germanic languages indicates that they have a common ancestor. The parent language has been named proto-Indo-European language. This was after studies revealed semantic and phonetic similarities between Latin, Proto-Germanic, and Sanskrit. Another family named the Indo-European family was found to be a cognate of Latin and Proto-Germanic. The linguistics used various modern languages to reconstruct the ancient languages. Later some linguistics who studied the Indo-European languages realized that vowel changes occurred in some related words. The vowel variations gave rise to new sounds. Thereafter, the new words carried a different meaning. This observation was summarized in Grimms Law and Verners Law. Both Grimm and Verner were philologists. The regularity hypothesisBy 1836, Germanic and romance languages scholars had done extensive research on the languages (Kebbe, 2010). This was boosted by the availability of written texts especially in Latin. The Germanic scholars relied on reconstruction of the parent language using the middle age Germanic languages (Fasold and Connor-Linton, 2006). After this intense interest in linguistics, there was a more systematic and structured approach to linguistics. In 1875, a group of German scholars founded a school. The scholars were later nicknamed the neogrammarians (Kebbe, 2010). They became the first scholars to put comparative studies in a logical historical order. The origins of the regularity hypothesis can be traced to the neogrammarians. The hypothesis held that sound laws did not have exceptions. That is, they were of the opinion that if sound changed, it would affect all the words containing that sound. The hypothesis postulated that the new sound would affect words in a particular place within a specified phonetic context (Fasold and Connor-Linton, 2006). The neogrammarians stated that one of four scenarios could explain words that did not follow the rules put forth by their hypothesis. Chance correspondence: - sometimes words from two different language f amilies may exhibit some phonetic and semantic similarity. The words should not be considered descendants of the same language even if they have closely related meaning and pronunciation. In other words, the similarity is merely coincidental (Kebbe, 2010). Rule deficiency: - some exceptions may occur due to a deficiency in sound laws. The sound rules may fail to put into consideration all the words that are affected by the sound in a different way. The neogrammarians suggested that if such a scenario occurs, then the laws should be adjusted to accommodate all the words affected by the sound. Loan words: - some words borrowed from other languages may enter a language long after sound changes have occurred. The new words will not conform to the sound system of other words in the borrowing language.Analogical reformation: - some borrowed words may not follow the laws of sound owing to their reformation. The borrowed word may be modified to fit the existing language rules without chang ing its sound. This may be attributed to fact that language speakers seek to remove irregularities in the language. However, it has been noted that some words clusters may move from a regular pattern to an irregular one.Critique of the neogrammarian hypothesis Some linguists have criticized the regularity hypothesis for being overly reliant on sound changes (Kebbe, 2010). It is not possible for a change in sound to affect all the words that contain the sound at the same time. Furthermore, some words may retain their original sound. This indicates that the sound laws are not universal in nature. The neogrammarians also refer to geographic boundaries in their work. The physical span of such a geographic region is not specified. The quantizing hypothesisA major breakthrough in the field of linguistics occurred in 1916 following a publication by Ferdinand De Saussure (Kebbe, 2010). The publication led to renewed interest in linguistics. The hypothesis is based on phonetic distinctivenes s of words. It centers on the differences between distinctive and non-distinctive sounds of a language (Yule, 2005). The study of phonemes led to the emergence of another related hypothesis called the phonetic hypothesis. De Saussure also made a significant contribution to linguistics through his work on speech and language (Kebbe, 2010). He pointed out that language and speech are different concepts. By separating the two, he was able to study language comprehensively. This gave rise to the view that language consists of rules and regulations. This implies that when one learns a new language, they are learning the rules governing the language. On the other hand, speech is an outward expression of the learnt rules. Speech may be modified to suit certain contexts. That is, language usage may be adapted to suit the listener.The quantizing hypothesis lays emphasis on sound distinctiveness (Kebbe, 2010). This implies that sounds vary acco...

Tuesday, June 2, 2020

Bribery Essay - 825 Words

Bribery (Essay Sample) Content: BriberyName:Instructor:Course:Date:BriberyIntroductionBribery is the most common type of public trust crime which involves giving, receiving a valuable thing with the aim of influencing an official in discharge of legal or public duties. It is punishable by law and anybody caught on the act is subjected to a fine or imprisonment. Bribery is an evil act that is common almost everywhere in the current society. There are usually two parties involved in bribery and they are the giver and the recipient. In order for corruption to go through both parties must be able and willing to enter into the corrupt agreement. Bribery aims at enriching the selfish interest of both parties involved. Bribery has become a way to get things done without following the proper channel. It is the short cut that solves all the impossible hurdles that can face an individual therefore legal action needs to be taken to stop the vice from becoming rampant (Legal Information Institute, 2010).Reason for briberyThe root cause of bribery is the love for money and money is the root of all evil. With money it is said that you can buy almost everything on the surface of the world from the basic needs, luxuries and even people. The desire for money by both the giver and the recipient of bribe is what has made bribery more appealing in the current society. People who are often at a disadvantage on a given situation or time often resort to offer bribe to turn things on their favor. The increase in the rate of bribery can be attributed to the rising common believe that each person has a price tag and therefore can be induced to make a favorable decision when in the position to do so and is paid the price for it.Although there is a lot of stigma associated with bribery in the society, many people unknowingly engages in the act without their realization. Parents and caregivers are partly responsible for rising bribery for they often bribe their children to do things in a certain manner r ather than making them do something because it the right thing to be done. It is popular habit among parents to promise their children toys, candies, gifts for a good performance in school or on a given task.The impact of bribeBribe has been used to influence the outcome of election result, to acquire a new job, to falsify examination result, to win government tenders, to influence the decision of the court just to mention a few. Bribery denies the truth and righteousness to take its course making the society completely rotten since the right decisions are often never made just because of bribery. It is common among government officials and affects large proportion of citizen. This corrupt act is resented in mature democracy since it kills public trust on the government and private institution thereby undermining democracy and human rights. It has become a common phenomenon for civil servants to get bribe for what they are supposed to do legitimately and this habit has formed part o f work routine. People have gotten accustomed to having their way by offering bribes. Social and economic status of business people, politician, civil servants and other workers have risen just because of bribery (Serious Fraud Office, (SFO).Laws pertaining to briberyBribery is an act that is punishable by law in most countries. The Federal bribery statute provides punishment for bribery offenders which include a fine not exceeding three times the value of the bribe or imprisonment not exceeding fifteen years. In the United States of America, bribery is enough to cause an impeachment of the president, vice president and the offi...

Monday, May 18, 2020

Literary Analysis Of Young Goodman Brown By Nathaniel...

Literary analyzes of â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a story about a normal man that ventures into the forest to meet an old man who attempts to tempt him into going deeper into the woods to worship the devil. After the old man convinces him that everyone that he loves and respects is going to the devil’s ceremony he gives in. In â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†, Hawthorne effectively uses symbolism to portray the theme that putting one s faith in others leads to weakness and the role his psychological developed plays in his morality. The Characters in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† are meant to represent society as a whole. They show how sin can tempt any individual whose faith is still developing. D. M. Mckeithan†¦show more content†¦(95) The old man uses an everybody is doing it approach to encourage Goodman Brown to attend a ceremony to worship the Devil. The old man shows the people Goodman Brown respected most in his community to degrade his faith. As Goodman Brown loses faith in others, he loses faith in himself. Mckeithan continues to say, â€Å"The Minister of Salem Village, Deacon Gookin, Goody Closyse, and Faith were all good in spite of what Goodman Brown eventually came to think of them (96). These are people that were supposedly more spiritually mature than Goodman Brown. He relied on their faith to keep his strong because his faith in God was still new and not fully developed. The psychology of Goodman Brown plays a major rule in his lack of faith because his lack of self esteem allows his desires overcome his reason and morality. Goodman Brown’s conflicts of interest are represented throughout story through the characters. All his evil desires are his id and his reason for avoiding his sin such as the views that his society will have on him is his ego. Levy said in his essay â€Å"The Problem of Faith in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"His submission to evil suggests that the demands of the id have overtaken the ego† (379). When the highly respected people in hisShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Ambiguity in Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown1587 Words   |  7 PagesThe Ambiguity in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†      Ã‚  Ã‚     The literary critics agree that there is considerable ambiguity in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown.† This essay intends to illustrate the previous statement and to analyze the cause of this ambiguity.    Henry James in Hawthorne, when discussing â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† comments on how imaginative it is, then mentions how allegorical Hawthorne is, and how allegory should be expressed clearly:    I frankly confess that I haveRead MoreYoung Goodman Brown964 Words   |  4 PagesChristopher McBride ENGL 303 23 June 2013 Essay Assignment One: Reader-Response Criticism Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† is a short story in which the author attempts to convey several different messages or themes throughout the literary piece. Themes in literary works can sometimes be better understood by analyzing the piece with a specific literary criticism technique. A few of these literary criticism techniques include Marxist, Formalism, and Reader Response just to name a few.Read More Ambiguity in Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown Essay1743 Words   |  7 PagesAmbiguity in â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚         There is no end to the ambiguity in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†; this essay hopes to explore this problem.    Peter Conn in â€Å"Finding a Voice in an New Nation† makes a statement regarding Hawthorne’s ambiguity:      Almost all of Hawthorne’s finest stories are remote in time or place. The glare of contemporary reality immobillized his imagination. He required shadows and half-light, and he sought a nervous equilibriumRead MoreNathaniel Hawthorne s Young Goodman Brown1543 Words   |  7 PagesIn Nathaniel Hawthorne s short story of Young Goodman Brown, the author uses symbolism and allegories in order to showcase the Puritan faith as well as man s conflict between good and evil. This analysis will break down the techniques that the author uses to critique the puritan society and to show the difference between how people appear to be in society and the true colors that they are hidden inside of them. There has been a lot of great authors in our time, but none more interesting thanRead MorePoe vs Hawthorne1992 Words   |  8 PagesLiterature Comparisons Between Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne Kimberley Prescott LIT/210 08/01/2012 Sherry Salant Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne Popular literature is incomplete without the names of Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne. Both of these authors lived in the same time period, yet lived very opposite lives. In fact, Poe received notoriety for criticizing Nathaniel Hawthorne. (Poe, 1847) In his career, he wrote several critiques of Hawthorne’s workRead MoreNathaniel Hawthorne s Young Goodman Brown1492 Words   |  6 PagesIn Nathaniel Hawthorne’s short story of Young Goodman Brown, the author uses symbolism and allegories in order to showcase the Puritan faith as well as man’s conflict between good and evil. This analysis will breakdown the techniques that the author uses to critique the puritan society, and to show the difference between how people appear to be in society and the true colors that they are hidden inside of them. There has been a lot of great authors in our time, but none more interesting than NathanielRead MoreFiction Essay - Young Goodman Brown and the Lottery1051 Words   |  5 PagesA thorough analysis of Jackson’s â€Å"The Lottery† and Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† reveals that different literary elements, such as tone and setting, are used to convey the characters’ arrival at dark, sinister places. II. INTRODUCTION III. SHIRLEY JACKSON’S â€Å"THE LOTTERY† A. Setting the tone: Peaceful and relaxing B. Irony: Even though the mood is relaxing, there is a premonition of something bad to come C. Ending: The ending is implied IV. NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE’SRead MoreSymbolism in Writings of Nathaniel Hawthorne Essay861 Words   |  4 PagesNathaniel Hawthorne often employed symbols in his stories. The literary term symbol is like an allusion placed in an image, action, thing or person (images and symbols). Symbols may be hard for readers to discover. It can be seen with the eye or not visible. One source described it as a word or object that stands for another word or object (Symbol). A Handbook to Literature states that a symbol is something that is itself and also stands for something else (509). Nathaniel HawthorneRead MoreYoung Goodman Brown882 Words   |  4 PagesLiterary Analysis of Young Goodman Brown Many aspects of human nature have changed over the centuries, but one thing that people have in common is the temptation of evil. From Adam and Eve eating fruit from the forbidden tree in the Garden of Eden to the Iraqi hijackers who flew two airplanes into the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 killing thousands of innocent people, evil has always been a part of this world. In an effort to portray the corruption of the Salem witch trials, NathanielRead MoreYoung Goodman Brown Essay(Symbolism)1543 Words   |  7 PagesIBEnglish III 13 September 2011 â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† Analysis One of the factors that shaped the New World was religion; it was a pillar in the fledgling society and a reason for migration for so many Europeans. Puritanism was a major belief system that held strongly throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Nathaniel Hawthorne, a nineteenth century American novelist and short story writer, composed the story of â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† which takes place in Salem. All

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Jean Paul Sartre Philosophy And The Existence Of God

Jean-Paul Sartre was an influential 20th century existentialist who mostly acquired information on the study of consciousness and the study of being. Sartre spent many years studying philosophy and the existence of God mostly studying the works of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger. He became a Professor of Philosophy at Le Havre in 1931 and then began teaching at Lycà ©e Pasteur in Paris from 1937 to 1939. During his career, Sartre wrote about many philosophical theories, some notable books include La nausà ©e published in 1938, Being and Nothingness published in 1943, and many more lectures and literature for individuals to read for years to come. Sartre was an important figure of existentialism and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1964 but turned it down. Some of Jean-Paul Sartre’s existentialist principles are the act of free will, forced to take responsibility for all actions, and the existence of God. Jean-Paul Sartre was a renowned intellectual, writer and philosopher. He was born in Paris in 1905 the only child of a French Navy officer, Jean-Baptiste Sartre and Anne-Marie Schweitzer. At an early age his father died of a fever and shortly thereafter his mother moved in with her parents in Meudon, this was instrumental in Sartre’s journey to philosophy. Her father taught her son mathematics and classical literature. At the young age of twelve Sartre’s mother remarried and the family moved to La Rochelle where he was bullied by other children from the area. As a teenager inShow MoreRelatedJean-Paul Sartre’s Philosophy: Radical Freedom and Responsibility 1253 Words   |  6 Pagesis condemned to be free† (Sartre 32). Radical freedom and responsibility is the central notion of Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophy. However, Sartre himself raises objections about his philosophy, but he overcomes these obvious objections. In this paper I will argue that man creates their own essence through their choices and that our values and choices are important because they allow man to be free and create their own existence. I will first do this by explaining Jean-Paul Sartre’s quote, then byRead MoreJean Paul : The Philosopher Of The Twentieth Century1387 Words   |  6 Pages Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre is arguably the best known philosopher of the twentieth century. He was born in Paris France on June 21st in the year 1905, and died on April 15th 1980 at age 74. He was a French philosopher, novelist, literary critic, playwright, political activist and biographer. Jean-Paul attended the École Normale Supà ©rieure from 1924-1929 and became the professor of philosophy in 1931 at Le Havre. He is a well known figure in the philosophy of Essentialism and Phenomenology,Read MoreExistentialism1408 Words   |  6 Pages Existentialism and its facets There are many philosophies that people use in their lives. Some of the ways of thinking are linked to some prominent people. There is idealism, naturalism, experimentalism, and existentialism among others. This essay explores existentialism, which has been postulated by Sartre among others. The other proponents of existentialism include Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, martin Buber, Martin Heidegger and Martin Buber. The weakness and strengths of existentialism are going toRead MoreA Concrete Human Existence, And The Conditions Of Such Existence1689 Words   |  7 PagesJuan Linares Mr. Maust English IV AP 26 September 2015 Thematic Project Outline Introduction Thesis. Existentialists focus on the question that is a concrete human existence, and the conditions of such existence; they do not dwell on a hypothesis for human essence, instead they stress that this essence is determined by an individual’s own life choices. Although humans live in the world, a distance is created in order to add meaning to the disinterested world; however, this meaning is fragile andRead MoreExistentialism And The Beliefs Of The Movement1454 Words   |  6 Pageswhat it is today and without it people would most likely be more close minded and less free. Existentialism was a very influential movement with many impactful authors and will forever be remembered in history because of it’s unique ideas about the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will and how it shifted a culture. Existentialism is a philosophical idea within ethics that was developed in the 19th century and progressedRead More Sartre’s Existentialism in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot1572 Words   |  7 Pagesoften misunderstand the quintessence of Sartre’s philosophy. Jean-Paul Sartre, in his lecture â€Å"Existentialism is Humanism,† remarks that â€Å"existence precedes essence† (2), that is, man first materializes and then searches for a purpose – an essence. Samuel Beckett, through his play Waiting for Godot, affirms Sartre’s core argument. Misinterpreting Godot, critic Edith contends that it differs fundamentally from Sartre’s philosophy; Kern acknowledges the existential elements withinRead MoreHsà ¼n Tzu and Jean-Paul Sartre Comparison of two Philosophers1527 Words   |  7 Pagesunderstanding of our human nature? Does man act according to his divine plan, or is he taught how to act? In analyzing the works of Hsà ¼n Tzu and Jean-Paul Sartre, I will determine which of these two philosophers offers the strongest foundation for living an ethical life in the modern era. HSÃÅ"N TZU Hsà ¼n Tzu is one of the main founders of eastern philosophy and is considered one of the three great sages in China along with Mencius and Confucious. Tzu’s style of writing is poetic and easy to understandRead MoreExistentialism And How This Philosophical Theory Has Developed Over The Years1443 Words   |  6 Pagesprecursors of this movement. Other major philosophers like Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger also deny any association with the movement yet their work is pivotal in bringing this theory to the world. Writers like Fyodor Dostoevsky, Franz Kafka also discuss this theme in their work, thus creating literary work on existentialism and developing this theory further. Existentialism taken up by Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, and Simone de Beauvoir in the 20th century in their literaryRead MoreAnalysis Of Jodi Picoult s My Sister s Keeper Essay1701 Words   |  7 PagesExistence precedes essence. These three words sum up existentialism in a nutshell and is the single most important of all of its theories. Originating from a nineteenth century Danish philosopher, this theory is still found throughout many literary works. Among these literary works is Jodi Picoult’s My Sister’s Keeper, a novel in which the theory of existentialism is actively present and found in many elements of the story. These elements, upon further observation, exhibit the six major conceptsRead MoreExistentialism And Human Emotions By Jean Paul Sartre1513 Words   |  7 PagesJean-Paul Sartre s novel Existentialism and Human Emotions discusses his philosophy that man is responsible for what he is and what he does; that man chooses his values and makes himself. At the beginning of the book, Sartre defends existentialism against several charges that had been laid against it. Throughout the book, Sartre refers to the basis of existentialism using the phrase ‘existence precedes essence . With this, phrase lies the basis for the argument that Existentialism is a Humanism

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marriage A Privilege Or A Right - 1213 Words

Amira Nassar Mrs. Fox English 122 19 October 2015 Marriage: A Privilege or a Right? Every citizen of the United States is entitled to happiness; the deprivation of a beautiful feeling makes the negativity spread throughout others. Whether it’s a weekend spent in bed or indulging in ice-cream after a long day, everyone has an escape where nothing seems to matter but their enjoyment of the moment. Married couples go through issues, but at the end of the day, their significant other is the reason for the permanent smile on their face. An amazing concept such as this should not be taken away from anyone, regardless of their sexual preference. Marriage is defined as a bond between a man and a woman, although that statement has recently changed. This alteration has turned many heads, but everyone finally has an equal chance at happiness. As an institution that has become more egalitarian and is considered to be a human right, gay marriage is a long overdue correction to an injustice in this country that should be handled under certain circumstances; every human des erves happiness, regardless of their preferences. The legalization of gay marriage has created a portal of controversy throughout people across the nation. Citizens of America are encouraged to be themselves and to feel comfortable in their skin; that being said, the authority of gay marriage should have been enforced decades prior. This generation has come a long way in expressing first amendment rights, but this topicShow MoreRelatedMarriage : A Right Or Privilege?1210 Words   |  5 PagesMarriage: A Right or Privilege? Marriage is a well known social norm that is practiced in most societies. In many societies, marriage is recognized as the legal bond between one man and one woman, especially in the United States. However, beginning popularity in the 21st century, the debate on same-sex marriage has grown exponentially. Many people argue that by denying same-sex couples the right to marry they are taking away their fundamental rights as citizens. There are also some arguments thatRead MoreThe Perception Of Micro Aggression Essay1429 Words   |  6 Pagespart of the society, it is unavoidable to enjoy the power and the privilege while experience the discrimination or micro-aggression both consciously or unconsciously. The sexual orientation and race is closely related to the power and the privilege. The perceptions of micro-aggression are largely based on the systems and situations that we are participating in. In this paper, I will talk about my relationship to the power and privilege, my experienc e with micro-aggression and my past and current perceptionsRead MoreThe Legalization Of Same Sex Marriage1294 Words   |  6 Pages The Legalization of Homosexual Marriage Brandon Taylor Wichita State University Gay marriage, also known as homosexual or same-sex marriage, has been a major topic in our country ever since it was allowed in Massachusetts whenever the state’s Supreme Court ruled the ban as unconstitutional. It was legalized in thirty seven of the fifty states before the Supreme Court’s ruling on June 26, 2015 that it was unconstitutional to deny marriage to a same sex couple (, 2015). The Merriam-WebsterRead MoreThe Rights Of The Lgbtq Community1217 Words   |  5 Pagesdenied certain rights because of their sexual preference. Because there is not a natural born man and woman standing at the aisle, many states deny them the right to marriage. Many protest the rights the LGBTQ community should be able to have. The Catholic Church has condemned the LGBTQ community since the beginning of time. While some states have changed their views and laws on LGBTQ rights and privileges, there is still much improvement that needs to be done. Who gives someone the righ t to tell othersRead MoreThe Social Invention Of Marriage928 Words   |  4 PagesSECTION THREE The social invention of marriage has changed over time, and as discussed above, it is no longer acceptable to separate black people from white while claiming to treat them â€Å"equally†. Similar to this, we cannot claim to be treating homosexuals equally, while enforcing laws that exclude them. The progression that our country has made towards civil rights have come about simply because we are all citizens of the United States. In a society so richly entrenched in the search for and theRead MoreRecognition of Same Sex Marriage1592 Words   |  7 Pagessame-sex marriage was illegal; although couples engaged in same-sex civil unions received nearly all of the same benefits and obligations of opposite-sex marriages. In 2012, Denmark passed legislation permitting same-sex couples to be legally married and naturally, the couple did so. Erik got an amazing job offer in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Of course the couple was excited about this great news but both were faced with a proble m: the state of Tennessee doesn’t recognize same-sex marriages. OliviaRead MoreSame Sex Marriage Should Be Legal998 Words   |  4 PagesSame sex marriage ought to be legalized on the grounds that it is uncivilized and unmerited. Marriage is a commitment between two people that cherish one another. In almost every country and culture, marriage is a commitment of loyalty and love. Marriage is an authority contract gathering two individuals together, furnishing them with profits of holy matrimony such as tax cuts and clinical privileges. The debate throughout most countries today is whether or not the rights of these profits and commitmentsRead MoreCreating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach by Martha Nussbaum 1015 Words   |  4 Pagesbe treated equally. We are granted equal rights in order to live as dignified human beings. Although we strive to achieve equality for all, obvious inequality and discrimination still exist around the world. Same-sex marriage still remains to be a problem around the world today and it is one of the man y cases of inequalities that needs to be dealt with. Many countries and many states within the United States still have policies prohibiting same sex marriage. Through her novel Creating Capabilities:Read MoreShould Same Sex Marriages Be Legal?1053 Words   |  5 Pagesarticulation of adoration. Then again, relational unions between same sex couples are not perceived by the government because of the Barrier of Marriage Act. Basically, their common right to be hitched is withheld from them. The Christian dominant part s impact in government approach and lawmaking is one of the first motivation behind why same-sex marriage has ceaselessly neglected to increase long haul acknowledgment in the United States (Michaels , 2004). Same-sex unions have go to the cuttingRead MoreThe Issue of Gay Marriages918 Words   |  4 PagesGay marriage has come to be a pressing topic in the contemporary society as more and more individuals get actively involved in discussing it. Individuals who oppose same-sex marriage are typically inclined to bring on a deontological argument or to say that legalizing the act might bring on other issues. In contrast, people who support gay marriages focus on matters related to human rights and justice. The arguments generated by each of the sides are certainly thought-provoking and it is very difficult

Utility Ethics The Utility Essay - 1398 Words

Introduction Among the numerous variations of ethics is one entitled Utility Ethics. Utility ethics, also known as utilitarianism, â€Å"promotes overall human welfare† (Jones, Felps, Bigley, 2007). Moreover, utility ethics is the â€Å"morally right choice of action in any situation that produces the greatest good for all involved† (Calculating, 2014). This moral principle suggests that all actions should â€Å"produce more good for everyone affected by the situation and the least amount of harm† (Calculating, 2014). Moreover, utilitarianism suggests that the action that generates the most happiness should be chosen (Philosophy, 2016). In order to determine if an action is morally right or wrong, a utility test may be performed. The utility test will aid in examining courses of action that produce the greatest amount of good for all affected in a situation (Hamilton, 2012). Mattel Inc. is known as being the â€Å"world’s largest toy company† (Sethi et al., 2011). The article by S. Prakash Sethi and colleagues (2011) suggests that the multinational corporation has been faced with numerous complaints of unethical conduct towards employees. An important ethical issue that is raised in the case study is the treatment of employees. The unfair treatment of employees includes: â€Å"low wages, excessive hours, and unsafe working environments† (Sethi et al., 2011). The utility test will be applied to this ethical issue raised by Mattel Inc. Utility Test The utility test can be used to find the â€Å"morallyShow MoreRelatedThe Utility Of Utility Ethics Essay1408 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction of the Utility Test The utility test is a means to derive how utility ethics fit into a given problem or situation. It analyzes the setting and determines if it is an ethical condition or solution. This test is otherwise known as the best outcomes or utility principle (Ethics Ops, n.d.). What is Utility Ethics and Why? Utilitarianism offers an idea of ethical conduct which embraces the mutual considerations of people as of greatest significance when making a correct decision (GustafsonRead MoreAct Utilitarianism Is Morally Right1492 Words   |  6 PagesAct Utilitarianism determines a morally right act as the one that produces â€Å"the greatest overall utility in its consequences.† (EC, p. 111) In Case 1 (EC, p. 124), it could be argued that Act Utilitarianism would support an individual purchasing a hybrid car due to the overall utility of the consequence outweighing the disutility. However, Act Utilitarianism has weaknesses to accompany its strengths when assessing whether an act is morally right or wrong. One problem of Act Utilitarianism, shownRead MoreUsing Utilitarian Ethicals to Determine Right From Wrong Essay1496 Words   |  6 Pagesanalysis will explore the use of Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarian ethics in the decision making process for that company in this vital time. Th e Utility test and the Common Good Test will then be applied to this situation and through that decision making process and then compared. This will all be used in attempt to solve the current issue that was on the mind of all of the board members. Utilitarian Ethical Problems Utilitarian ethics focuses on the maximizing the pleasure and the minimizing theRead MoreUtilitarianism And Its Flaws Of John Stuart Mill s Defends Utilitarianism Essay1307 Words   |  6 PagesChristian Mangru Professor Grindeland Ethics from a Global Perspective 7 December 2016 Utilitarianism and its Flaws John Stuart Mill’s defends utilitarianism, an ethical theory according to which, as he puts it, â€Å"actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness† (155 Ethics). In other words, actions are morally right if they make us happy and actions are morally wrong if they make us unhappy. Utilitarianism is an ethicalRead MoreSimilarity Between Religion And Utilitarianism813 Words   |  4 Pagesprinciples. The ultimate goal for a utilitarian is happiness, which is also the main objective of religion. Utilitarian ethics replicates the main religious rules. A principle like not lying is wrong in the religious sense because it is against teachings while the same is wrong according to a utilitarian perspective because it hampers the attainment of utility. The principal of utility and the golden rule expresses the idea that an individual is concerns are on the same level with the concern of othersRead MoreEthical Implications of a Confidentiality Breach Within the Healthcare Industry1380 Words   |  6 Pagesthere are not absolute values in ethics. Utilitarian theorists posits the viewpoints that ethic defensibility of all actions or events are relative to the amount of utility generally defined as good that they produce (Mill, 1863). The course of action that results in the greatest amount of good for the most people is the one that is most ethical. There are a few key factors that help to determine utility, however. One is that actions and events that present utility for the mind and intellect are generallyRead MoreIntroduction The purpose of this paper is to examine an ethical dilemma faced by a company who1600 Words   |  7 Pagesthe moral implications this company has in continuing further manufacturing for their pacemaker client. An overview of utilitarian ethics will be discussed, focused primarily around 17th century philosopher Jeremy Bentham’s ideas about ethics. His framework will be used to present factors that influence the transistor company’s business decision. Finally, the Utility Test and Common Good Test will be applied to the company’s predicament to help determine the correct ethical course of action for thisRead MoreAristotle on Friendship Essay1134 Words   |  5 Pagesfriendship, books VIII and IX of the Nicomachean Ethics deal solely with this topic. A modern day definition of a friend can be defined as â€Å"one joined to another in intimacy and mutual benevolence independently of sexual or family love†. (Oxford English Dictionary). Aristotle’ s view on friendship is much broader than this. His arguments are certainly not flawless. In this essay I will outline what Aristotle said about friendship in the Nichomachaen Ethics and highlight possible flaws in his argumentsRead MoreEssay On Utopia And Utopia816 Words   |  4 Pagespeople are going to have different view on things. There’s always two sides to everything. When it comes to university, there are two visions: Utility and Utopia. They’re very different and lead to different metrics of success. In order to be success in school, it’s imperative to balance yourself between the two visions. Keeping a balance between utopia and utility can lead to path. They both explain a great deal about college. Although they both have different aims, they have one goal similar. The goalRead MoreOn Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics 1681 Words   |  7 Pages1. Introduction There is little doubt that Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics are by far the two most important ethical theories throughout contemporary philosophy. Though both attempt to answer questions about morality and behavior, the two theories have many fundamental differences: one evaluates actions in terms of the utility they produce whereas the other considers whether actions fulfill duty; one emphasizes consequence where the other highlights intentions; one sees desire as essential while

Leading and Managing Innovation Evaluate

Question: Discuss about the Leading and Managing Innovation Evaluate. Answer: Introduction The aim of this document is to critically evaluate and analyze the selected business case Sharing Better Practice with better overview. The critical analysis is performed to identify possible alternatives available for the selected business case. Moreover, the critical analysis aims to evaluate the alternative options regarding the benefits, costs, and risks aspects. After these aspects consideration, this document provides a preferred solution over the business case (Bresnen 2016). In order to analyze the above-mentioned points, the essay considers some methods such as need analysis, cause-effect analysis, and cost-benefit analysis to emphasize over the effectiveness of the business case. The first phase of the Sharing Better Practice project is initiated in October 2003 approved by the Steering Committee (Newman 2016; Archibald Archibald 2016). In this business case, the second phase is demonstrated based on outputs of first phase. In first phase, the definition of good practice is depicted as to capture and share better ideas for improving the business requirements and entire work process. Business Case Critical Analysis The project initiated with Department of Premier and Cabinets draft Corporate Plan 2002-2005 for identification of major addressed issues from IAPPU in the year span 2003 to 2004 (Turner 2016). The issues included facilitation of good practices and development of an appropriate methodology to support significant Government information management and systems activities. As the good practice definition is stated as the capture, sharing and subsequent implementation of good ideas i.e. innovations or lessons learnt about what works and what does not in Government business activities. This is aimed at improving the way we do business both in terms of effectiveness and efficiency (Kuryl 2004). The second phase business plan is prepared for establishing appropriate business process structure within IAPPU and in other agencies (Mazzei, Flynn Haynie 2016). This plan is incorporated with detailed implementation planning as well. Business Case Problem Statement First phase of Sharing Better Practice business case stated problem statement as to facilitate better ideas and concepts to address better effectiveness in business processes. Currently, in business processes such as project, systems and information management, lack of new ideas and better practice issue persists. Hence, this project is considered to put on improvements regarding the efficiency in process implementation. Therefore, the identified outcomes from this project are following: Possible Alternatives In this business case, possible alternatives are identified in form of some projects that are reliant over second phase. The capturing and sharing of better practice information undertaken by IAAPU staffs with their responsibilities. The related alternatives are: These identified alternative projects that can be utilized in the current scenario for improvement of the information sharing over new ideas and practice concepts. Moreover, the alternatives are addressed for evaluating the cost, benefits, and risks. Further, the financial summary is presented to emphasize over the policy, guidelines, and project unit cost assessment. This project business case is demonstrated with rationale of the preferred solution to identify why preferences are placed. Evaluation of the Benefit, Cost and Risk of Alternative Options For better financial support, internal capital will be supplied from Inter Agency Policy and Projects Unit, Department of Premier and Cabinet. Risks are addressed with Tasmanian Government Project management guidelines (Silvius 2016; Wittmayer Loorbach 2016). In first phase of the project, the risks are included as following: Strong reliance over capturing information concerning good practices in Tasmanian Government agencies guidelines Several obstacles and hindrances over good practice information sharing within government agencies Reluctance over implementation of agreed practices for business units Stakeholders aiming for identification of existing poor areas where practices are not utilized In aspects of these risks, the business case provided some mitigation strategies; the strategies are relevant in those aspects. Moreover, the business case should identify those risks in terms of likelihood, severity, and impact; so that risks can be prioritized for elimination (Ben Mahmoud?Jouini, Midler Silberzahn 2016). In current second phase business case, the risks are mitigated taking all of them catastrophic or major. Risk assessment and management is considered as major activity in business planning with initiatives of examining the risk register and contingency planning. Risk status is used in risk register for reporting to the Steering Committee with status incorporation (Binder 2016). Issues register is another method that was included in quality management and risk management planning with regular frequency. Quality management planning is prepared taking Project Management Methodology, Output Development Methodology, output quality, performance measures, and standards. Reporting, monitoring, assessment, and risk registers are adhered in this planning with information management (Lee 2016; Yahiaoui, Chebbi Weber 2016). Quality management planning should be conducted with procurement planning as well. Procurement of quality ensures assessment of quality in terms of improving further processes as well. Project management methodology is mentioned in the project as Tasmanian Government Project guidelines version 5.0; the business case is relevant as the guideline is specific for application (Rekonen Bjorklund 2016). Again, output development methodology is mentioned to be following project management information and resources project (PMIRP). For appropriate output quality, the project is designed to incorporate IASC, IAPPU, and management groups in consultancy with purpose of initial outpu ts (Pugh 2016; Qin Chen 2016). Focus groups are important for appropriate demonstration of new ideas and practice in project. Performance measures should be estimated based on key performance indicators in project standards and completion constraints. Moreover, the performance measures that are selected as baseline data, outcome realization plan and existing performance measurement factors (Coates 2016). Successful and fulfilling project business case should include appropriate standards, in this business plan; Tasmanian Government Web Publishing Standards are employed with information and resources. Along with standards, the reporting requirements are considered in the project for better progress reports and outcomes listing. The project development planning is prepared with appropriate schedules along with timeline for first phase project execution. The schedule is presented with detailed milestones and activities (Bresnen 2016). However, the scheduling should be prepared with suitable duration setting for specifically identifying the duration of the entire project and appropriate completion time. Therefore, the outcome realization planning is prepared for progressive management for IAPPU. Above-mentioned governance model is essential for monitoring and assessing the project activities with quality management planning. Monitoring employs regular or frequent revision of progress reports for adoption of changes in planning (Newman 2016). As per necessary data and information management, the TRIM file system is used in the project. Moreover, outcome realization planning is prepared in the business case for designated and ongoing management process with reporting certain achievement (Archibald Archibald 2016). The outcome realization planning is quite similar to post-implementation reviewing procedure for most projects. Rationale of the Preferred Solution Rationale of the preferred solution suggests the major points that can be considered in the project as scope of work, communication tools, stakeholder management planning, and project management planning as well. Second phase of the project includes scope of the work in terms of in-scope, out-of-scope, and uncertain or unresolved work (Turner 2016; Mazzei, Flynn Haynie 2016). In-scope work is included in business plan showing important and appropriate activities in the project. Implementation of essential business process is important in the project for supporting better practices in system. However, the architectural principles will not be accepted as in-scope project work (Silvius 2016). On the other hand, the communication should be aimed at establishment of IAPPU for central driver to support better practices. Quality management process is readied taking Project Management Methodology, Output Development Methodology, outcome quality, execution measures, and models. Reporting, observing, appraisal, and hazard registers are followed in this arranging with data administration (Wittmayer Loorbach 2016; Ben Mahmoud?Jouini, Midler Silberzahn 2016). Quality administration arranging ought to be directed with acquisition arranging too. Obtainment of value guarantees evaluation of value as far as enhancing further procedures too. Project administration strategy is said in the project as Tasmanian Government Project guidelines; the business case is important, as the strategy is particular for application (Binder 2016). Once more, yield improvement procedure is said to take after project administration data and assets extend (PMIRP). For fitting yield quality, the project is intended to join IASC, IAPPU, and administration assembles in consultancy with reason for beginning yields (Lee 2016). In addi tion, the execution measures that are chosen as gauge information, result acknowledgment arrange and existing execution estimation elements (Yahiaoui, Chebbi Weber 2016). Fruitful and satisfying project business case ought to incorporate suitable norms, in this strategy for success; Tasmanian Government Web Publishing Standards are utilized with data and assets. The project improvement arranging is set up with suitable timetables alongside course of events for first stage extends execution. The timetable is given significant turning points and exercises (Rekonen Bjorklund 2016). In spite of, the booking ought to be set up with reasonable length setting for particularly recognizing the term of the whole project and suitable consummation time. Monitoring includes regular or frequent changes of progress reports for adoption of changes in planning (Pugh 2016). According to vital information and data administration, the TRIM record framework is utilized as a part of the project. Additionally, result acknowledgment arranging is set up in the business case for assigned and progressing administration handle with reporting certain accomplishment (Qin Chen 2016; Coates 2016). The result acknowledgment arranging is very like post-execution exploring method for generally extends. Chance appraisal and administration is considered as significant movemen t in business arranging with activities of inspecting the hazard enlist and possibility arranging. Progress and project status is utilized as a part of risk register for answering to the Steering Committee with status joining (Yahiaoui, Chebbi Weber 2016). Risk Register is another strategy that was incorporated into quality administration and hazard administration arranging with standard recurrence. Conclusion Meetings with project stakeholder are essential for proper exhibit of new thoughts and practice in project. Execution measures ought to be evaluated in light of key execution markers in project gauges and finishing imperatives. Alongside models, the reporting prerequisites are considered in the project for better advance reports and results posting. Along these lines, the result acknowledgment arranging is set up for dynamic administration for IAPPU. The project is conducted to improve the information sharing and capturing in form of ideas realization and implementation in appropriate manner. The project requires benefit planning to continue the analysis process aligned with resource utilization. Major limitation in the business case is identified as period estimation without duration identification. Most of the project fails due to unidentified duration of activities; the activities tend to take more lengthy duration than usual making entire project longer than planned. In this long er schedule, the project takes expenditure more than planned value in the project causing significant adjustments in the budget. Therefore, the recommended steps should be incorporated as; To include durations for the activities in the entire project To add essential severity and impact in risk identification process To assess risks based on scoring of consequences and impact on project References Archibald, R.D. Archibald, S., 2016.Leading Managing Innovation: What Every Executive Team Must Know about Project, Program, Portfolio Management(Vol. 22). CRC Press. Ben Mahmoud?Jouini, S., Midler, C. Silberzahn, P., 2016. Contributions of Design Thinking to Project Management in an Innovation Context.Project Management Journal,47(2), pp.144-156. Binder, J., 2016.Global project management: communication, collaboration management across borders. CRC Press. Bresnen, M., 2016. Institutional development, divergence change in the discipline of project management.International Journal of Project Management,34(2), pp.328-338. Coates, H.L., 2016. Training researchers how to manage data to produce better results, enable reuse, provide for long-term access. Kuryl, K., 2004. Sharing Better Practice Project Business Plan Phase 2: Inter Agency Policy Projects Unit, DEPARTMENT OF PREMIER CABINET. Lee, M.C., 2016. Knowledge management innovation management: best practices in knowledge sharing knowledge value chain.International Journal of Innovation Learning,19(2), pp.206-226. Mazzei, M.J., Flynn, C.B. Haynie, J.J., 2016. Moving beyond initial success: Promoting innovation in small businesses through high-performance work practices.Business Horizons,59(1), pp.51-60. Newman, V., 2016. Mapping Innovation Practice Among Practitioners.InImpact: The Journal of Innovation Impact,7(1), p.1. Pugh, L., 2016.Change management in information services. Routledge. Qin, F. Chen, P., 2016. Knowledge Management of Project Team Based on Life Cycle Theory. InProceedings of the 6th International Asia Conference on Industrial Engineering Management Innovation(pp. 645-652). Atlantis Press. Rekonen, S. Bjorklund, T.A., 2016. Adapting to the changing needs of managing innovative projects.European Journal of Innovation Management,19(1), pp.111-132. Silvius, A.J.G., 2016. Strategic Integration of Social Media into Project Management Practice. Turner, R., 2016.Gower handbook of project management. Routledge. Wittmayer, J.M. Loorbach, D., 2016. Governing Transitions in Cities: Fostering Alternative Ideas, Practices, Social Relations Through Transition Management. InGovernance of Urban Sustainability Transitions(pp. 13-32). Springer Japan. Yahiaoui, D., Chebbi, H. Weber, Y., 2016. HR practices, context knowledge transfer in MA.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,27(20), pp.2415-2435.